A considerable amount of research has investigated the relationship between potential neuropsychological dysfunction, pedophilia, and sexual offending against children. Until recently, these studies focused primarily on the relationship between executive functions and sexual offending against children, collapsing across underlying sexual preferences, like pedophilia. Prior research suggests neuropsychological dysfunction in individuals who have committed child sexual abuse. However, there are still unanswered questions about how these impairments relate to pedophilia as a sexual preference and whether these impairments are also observed in pedophilic individuals who do not offend. This review will discuss current findings as they relate to pedophilia, while using theoretical frameworks to guide future research.